Contact Us


Email Address




This publication is based upon work supported by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) under Contract No. #080741. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect views of MDOT. This publication is disseminated in the interest of information exchange. MDOT expressly disclaims any liability, of any kind, or for any reason, that might otherwise arise out of any use of this publication or the information or data provided in the publication. MDOT further disclaims any responsibility for typographical errors or accuracy of the information provided or contained within this information. MDOT makes no warranties or representations whatsoever regarding the quality, content, completeness, suitability, adequacy, sequence, accuracy or timeliness of the information and data provided, or that the contents represent standards, specifications, or regulations.


The investigators at Michigan Technological University would like to acknowledge the Michigan Department of Transportation for their support in conducting this research. The authors would also like to thank the Michigan Tech Transportation Institute, and the Sustainable Futures Institute at Michigan Tech for their direction and invaluable support in this research.